All animals require Protein, Carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, Macro Minerals, Trace Minerals, and Water. The percentages and amounts of these nutrients vary with different species and also different stages of life  Infancy, Growth, Adult Maintenance.

Other factors effect nutrient requirements such as Breeding, Shipping, Molting, or Competing.  Nutrient levels must be increased as demands increase or full genetic potential will never be achieved.  Whole grain feeds are the stable diet of pigeons. These grains consist of corn, wheat, red milo, white milo, maple peas, Canada peas, vetch, buckwheat, safflower and many others. While whole grains are a natural feeds and could supply enough protein, carbohydrates and fat, they fall short of necessary vitamins, macro and micro nutrients.